اثر بازدارندگی برخی از گیاهان بر نماتد سیستی چغندرقند (Heterodera schachtii) در شرایط گلخانه و میکروپلات

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل پژوهشی


1 دانشگاه شیراز

2 استاد بخش گیاه‌پزشکی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز

3 استادیار بخش گیاه‌پزشکی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز

4 دانشیار بخش گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز

5 استادیار پژوهش مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس


نماتد سیستی Heterodera schachtii مهم‏ترین نماتد چغندرقند در دنیا می‏باشد. مواد آلی می‏تواند باعث کاهش جمعیت نماتدهای انگل گیاهی شود. در این پژوهش اثر بازدارندگی پودر خشک خارلته، خاکشیر وحشی، شیرین‎بیان، کاردی، کاهو وحشی، کرچک، گل جعفری، گل ‏‏گندم، گلرنگ وحشی و منداب بر چغندرقند رقم شریف و نماتد سیستی در دو آزمایش در شرایط میکروپلات بررسی گردید. آزمایش اول در مخلوط خاک زراعی و ماسه رودخانه‏ای سترون (1:1) و آزمایش دوم در خاک زراعی غیرسترون با جمعیت اولیه 4200 تخم به ازای هر گیاه انجام شد. در آزمایش سوم تأثیر تیمارها بر تفریخ تخم و نفوذ نماتد به ریشه در خاک آلوده و در گلخانه‏ بررسی گردید. نتایج نشان داد اضافه کردن پودر خشک گیاهان به خاک سترون تأثیر معنی ‏داری بر شاخص‏های رشدی چغندرقند آلوده نداشت. منتها به ‏جز گل جعفری، سایر تیمارها باعث افزایش نسبی وزن ریشه از 5% تا 241% گردیدند. گل گندم، کاهو وحشی و گلرنگ وحشی سبب افزایش بیش از دو برابری وزن ریشه نسبت به شاهد شدند. هم‏چنین خارلته، کرچک و کاردی باعث کاهش نسبی جمعیت نهایی و فاکتور تولیدمثل نماتد شدند. در خاک زراعی کرچک، گل جعفری، گل گندم، کاهو وحشی و خاکشیر وحشی باعث افزایش حداقل دو برابری وزن ریشه، و منداب باعث افزایش 2/1 برابری عیار قند شدند. تیمارها اثر معنی ‏داری بر شاخص‎های نماتد نداشتند. کاردی و کاهو وحشی باعث کاهش نسبی جمعیت نهایی و فاکتور تولیدمثل نماتد شدند. در آزمایش سوم کاهو وحشی باعث بیشترین کاهش تفریخ تخم و گلرنگ وحشی بیشترین کاهش نفوذ نماتد به ریشه شدند.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Inhibitory effects of some plants on the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii, under glasshouse and microplot conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Solmaz Abbasi 1
  • Akbar Karegar 2
  • Reza Ghaderi 3
  • Habiballah Hamzehzarghani 4
  • Mohsen Bazrafshan 5
1 Shiraz university
2 Prof. of Plant Phathol., School of Agric., Shiraz Univ., Shiraz, Iran.
3 Assistant Prof. of Plant Phathol., School of Agric., Shiraz Univ., Shiraz, Iran.
4 Associate Prof. of Plant Phathol., School of Agric., Shiraz Univ., Shiraz, Iran.
5 Assistant Prof. of Agricultural Research, Education & Extension Organization, Fars, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Heterodera schachtii is the most important nematode of sugar beet worldwide. Application of organic matter can reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes. In this study, the inhibitory effects of creeping thistle, tall sisymbrium, liquorice, narrow-leaf plantain, wild lettuce, castor bean, French marigold, cornflower, wild safflower and arugula on sugar beet cv. Sharif and H. schachtii were investigated in two microplot experiments. The first experiment was conducted in pasteurized mixed field soil and river sand, and the second in field soil, both with an initial population of 4200 eggs/plant. Also, the effects of the treatments on nematode egg hatching and root penetration were studied in a glasshouse experiment. The results showed that adding plant powders to pasteurized soil had no significant effect on the infected sugar beet growth indices. However, except marigold, the other treatments caused a relative increase in taproot weight of 5% to 241% compared to the control. Cornflower, wild lettuce and wild safflower increased taproot weight more than twofold compared to the control. Moreover, creeping thistle, castor bean and plantain caused a relative decrease in nematode final population and reproduction factor. In field soil, castor bean, marigold, wild lettuce, cornflower and sisymbrium increased taproot weight by at least twofold, and arugula increased sugar content by 1.2-fold. The treatments had no significant effect on the nematode indices. Plantain and wild lettuce caused a relative decrease in the nematode reproduction factor. In glasshouse experiment, wild lettuce caused the greatest reduction in egg hatching and safflower reduced nematode penetration into the roots.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Inhibitory plants
  • nematode management
  • plant-parasitic nematode
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